CaCO3 (calcite) formation and its chemical effects

In this section are presented in numerical and graphical form the results of various SeaWaterCalc program runs.

In each of these runs only a single parameter is varied (for example temperature, or ppmCO2) and the effect of this on the various parameters during calcite formation in seawater is easily simulated.

Seawater composition use in all of the simulations is the following:

'**************************************************************
' DOE 1994 Standard mean composition of seawater with borates *
'**************************************************************
[Cl-]  = 0.54586 * S/35  mol/kg(solution)
[Na+]  = 0.46906 * S/35  mol/kg(solution)
[Mg2+] = 0.05282 * S/35  mol/kg(solution)
[Ca2+] = 0.01028 * S/35  mol/kg(solution)
[SO4--]= 0.02824 * S/35  mol/kg(solution)
[K+]   = 0.01021 * S/35  mol/kg(solution)
[Br-]  = 0.00084 * S/35  mol/kg(solution)
[Sr2+] = 0.00009 * S/35  mol/kg(solution)
[F-]   = 0.00007 * S/35  mol/kg(solution)
[Btot] = 0.00042 * S/35  B(OH)3 + B(OH)4- mol/kg(solution)

where S is the salinity in g/(kg-soln).  The standard seawater composition as listed may be supersaturated in respect to calcite or aragonite formation. Calcite is the less soluble form of calcium carbonate, so theoretically it should precipitate first. Coral reef is however constituted by aragonite, a fact that shoul be considered.

The terms 'sat. C' and 'sat. A' in the two colums at the right refer to the oversaturation of the seawater (often called W in textbooks).

It is defined as the ratio between the concentrations product [Ca++] [CO3--] and the solubility product. If greater then 1 , the corresponding form of CaCO3 should start to precipitate. In some of the simulations the precipitation of CaCO3 is simulated to a certain extent (e.g. 10%) or to completion (100%).

Reactions considered in the simulation below are the followng:

H2O <==> H+ + OH- ' pH = pHT
CO2 + H2O <==> H2CO3
H2CO3 <==> H+ + HCO3-
HCO3- <==> H+ + CO3--
B(OH)3 + H2O <==> H+ + B(OH)4-
HSO4- <==> H+ + SO4--
HF <==> H+ + F-
Ca++ + OH- <==> CaOH+
Mg++ + OH- <==> MgOH+
CaCO3calcite <==> Ca++ + CO3--
CaCO3aragonite <==> Ca++ + CO3--

 

--> Effect of varying the fraction of calcite (CaCO3) which precipitates on standard seawater, all the rest being equal.

--> Effect of varying  temperature on standard seawater, calcite precipitation 10% , all the rest being equal.

--> Plot of the evolution of chemical composition during CaCO3 formation , ppm CO2 = 410, T= 17C, S = 35, pptF = 0 to 0.1

--> Plot of the effect of pressure on calcite and aragonite saturation T = 4C

--> Plot of the effect of temperature on calcite and aragonite saturation P = 0 atm


Tc = 17           ' temperature in Celsius (C)
ppmCO2 = 410      ' parts per million (in volume) of CO2 in the atmosphere
P = 0             ' pressure in atm. P=0 means ambient pressure, 1 atm.
S = 35            ' salinity, in grams of salts in 1 kg of solution
pptF = 0.00 to 1.00 step 0.05      ' fraction of CaCO3 which actually precipitates 
Cl  = 0.54586     ' Cl-   Mol/kg(solution)
Na  = 0.46906     ' Na+   Mol/kg(solution)
Mg  = 0.05282     ' Mg++  Mol/kg(solution)
Ca  = 0.01028     ' Ca++  Mol/kg(solution)
SO4 = 0.02824     ' SO4-- Mol/kg(solution)
K   = 0.01021     ' K+    Mol/kg(solution)
Br  = 0.00084     ' Br-   Mol/kg(solution)
Sr  = 0.00009     ' Sr++  Mol/kg(solution)
F   = 0.00007     ' F-    Mol/kg(solution)
B   = 0.00042     ' B(OH)3 + B(OH)4- Mol/kg(solution)
save .csv file = 0' (0=no  1 = yes)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *** CO2 SOLUBILITY EQUILIBRIA IN SEAWATER AND CaCO3 FORMATION ***
 Concentrations [..] are in mmol/kg              DIC = [H2CO3] + [HCO3-] + [CO3--]
 Cout>0 means CO2 is outgassed from SeaWater to Atmosphere, the opposite if Cout<0
 +----+------+-----+----+----+------+------+-------+-------+-------+-----+------+-------+------+-------+------+-----+-----+-----+
 |(C)|ppmCO2| pptF|  P |  S |   pH |  pOH |[H2CO3]|[HCO3-]|[CO3--]| DIC |[Ca++]|[CaOH+]|[Mg++]|[MgOH+]| Cout |CaCO3|sat.C|sat.A|
 +----+------+-----+----+----+------+------+-------+-------+-------+-----+------+-------+------+-------+------+-----+-----+-----+
 | 17 |  410 |0.000|   0|35.0| 8.110| 5.429|  0.014|  1.882|0.18148|2.077|10.279| 0.0008|52.746| 0.0739| 0.000|0.000|  4.3|  2.8|
 | 17 |  410 |0.050|   0|35.0| 7.995| 5.545|  0.014|  1.442|0.10655|1.563| 9.968| 0.0006|52.763| 0.0566| 0.203|0.312|  2.5|  1.6|
 | 17 |  410 |0.100|   0|35.0| 7.922| 5.618|  0.014|  1.219|0.07618|1.310| 9.817| 0.0005|52.772| 0.0479| 0.306|0.462|  1.7|  1.1|
 | 17 |  410 |0.150|   0|35.0| 7.883| 5.656|  0.014|  1.116|0.06389|1.195| 9.750| 0.0005|52.776| 0.0439| 0.353|0.530|  1.4|  0.9|
 | 17 |  410 |0.200|   0|35.0| 7.862| 5.677|  0.014|  1.062|0.05783|1.134| 9.714| 0.0004|52.778| 0.0417| 0.378|0.565|  1.3|  0.8|
 | 17 |  410 |0.250|   0|35.0| 7.848| 5.691|  0.014|  1.030|0.05433|1.098| 9.693| 0.0004|52.780| 0.0405| 0.393|0.586|  1.2|  0.8|
 | 17 |  410 |0.300|   0|35.0| 7.839| 5.700|  0.014|  1.008|0.05207|1.074| 9.679| 0.0004|52.780| 0.0396| 0.403|0.600|  1.2|  0.8|
 | 17 |  410 |0.350|   0|35.0| 7.832| 5.707|  0.014|  0.993|0.05050|1.057| 9.669| 0.0004|52.781| 0.0390| 0.410|0.610|  1.1|  0.7|
 | 17 |  410 |0.400|   0|35.0| 7.827| 5.712|  0.014|  0.981|0.04934|1.045| 9.662| 0.0004|52.781| 0.0386| 0.415|0.618|  1.1|  0.7|
 | 17 |  410 |0.450|   0|35.0| 7.823| 5.716|  0.014|  0.972|0.04846|1.035| 9.656| 0.0004|52.782| 0.0382| 0.419|0.623|  1.1|  0.7|
 | 17 |  410 |0.500|   0|35.0| 7.820| 5.719|  0.014|  0.965|0.04777|1.027| 9.652| 0.0004|52.782| 0.0379| 0.422|0.628|  1.1|  0.7|
 | 17 |  410 |0.550|   0|35.0| 7.818| 5.721|  0.014|  0.960|0.04720|1.021| 9.648| 0.0004|52.782| 0.0377| 0.425|0.631|  1.1|  0.7|
 | 17 |  410 |0.600|   0|35.0| 7.816| 5.724|  0.014|  0.955|0.04674|1.016| 9.645| 0.0004|52.782| 0.0375| 0.427|0.634|  1.0|  0.7|
 | 17 |  410 |0.650|   0|35.0| 7.814| 5.725|  0.014|  0.951|0.04635|1.012| 9.643| 0.0004|52.783| 0.0374| 0.429|0.637|  1.0|  0.7|
 | 17 |  410 |0.700|   0|35.0| 7.812| 5.727|  0.014|  0.947|0.04602|1.008| 9.640| 0.0004|52.783| 0.0372| 0.430|0.639|  1.0|  0.7|
 | 17 |  410 |0.750|   0|35.0| 7.811| 5.728|  0.014|  0.945|0.04573|1.005| 9.639| 0.0004|52.783| 0.0371| 0.432|0.641|  1.0|  0.7|
 | 17 |  410 |0.800|   0|35.0| 7.810| 5.730|  0.014|  0.942|0.04549|1.002| 9.637| 0.0004|52.783| 0.0370| 0.433|0.643|  1.0|  0.7|
 | 17 |  410 |0.850|   0|35.0| 7.809| 5.731|  0.014|  0.940|0.04527|0.999| 9.636| 0.0004|52.783| 0.0369| 0.434|0.644|  1.0|  0.7|
 | 17 |  410 |0.900|   0|35.0| 7.808| 5.731|  0.014|  0.938|0.04508|0.997| 9.634| 0.0004|52.783| 0.0369| 0.435|0.645|  1.0|  0.6|
 | 17 |  410 |0.950|   0|35.0| 7.807| 5.732|  0.014|  0.936|0.04490|0.995| 9.633| 0.0004|52.783| 0.0368| 0.436|0.646|  1.0|  0.6|
 | 17 |  410 |1.000|   0|35.0| 7.806| 5.733|  0.014|  0.934|0.04475|0.994| 9.632| 0.0004|52.783| 0.0367| 0.436|0.648|  1.0|  0.6|
 +----+------+-----+----+----+------+------+-------+-------+-------+-----+------+-------+------+-------+------+-----+-----+-----+

Tc = -2 to 30 step 1           ' temperature in Celsius (C)
ppmCO2 = 410      ' parts per million (in volume) of CO2 in the atmosphere
P = 0             ' pressure in atm. P=0 means ambient pressure, 1 atm.
S = 35            ' salinity, in grams of salts in 1 kg of solution
pptF = 0.10       ' fraction of CaCO3 which actually precipitates 
Cl  = 0.54586     ' Cl-   Mol/kg(solution)
Na  = 0.46906     ' Na+   Mol/kg(solution)
Mg  = 0.05282     ' Mg++  Mol/kg(solution)
Ca  = 0.01028     ' Ca++  Mol/kg(solution)
SO4 = 0.02824     ' SO4-- Mol/kg(solution)
K   = 0.01021     ' K+    Mol/kg(solution)
Br  = 0.00084     ' Br-   Mol/kg(solution)
Sr  = 0.00009     ' Sr++  Mol/kg(solution)
F   = 0.00007     ' F-    Mol/kg(solution)
B   = 0.00042     ' B(OH)3 + B(OH)4- Mol/kg(solution)
save .csv file = 0' (0=no  1 = yes)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *** CO2 SOLUBILITY EQUILIBRIA IN SEAWATER AND CaCO3 FORMATION ***
 Concentrations [..] are in mmol/kg              DIC = [H2CO3] + [HCO3-] + [CO3--]
 Cout>0 means CO2 is outgassed from SeaWater to Atmosphere, the opposite if Cout<0
 +----+------+-----+----+----+------+------+-------+-------+-------+-----+------+-------+------+-------+------+-----+-----+-----+
 |(C)|ppmCO2| pptF|  P |  S |   pH |  pOH |[H2CO3]|[HCO3-]|[CO3--]| DIC |[Ca++]|[CaOH+]|[Mg++]|[MgOH+]| Cout |CaCO3|sat.C|sat.A|
 +----+------+-----+----+----+------+------+-------+-------+-------+-----+------+-------+------+-------+------+-----+-----+-----+
 | -2 |  410 |0.100|   0|35.0| 7.954| 6.451|  0.028|  1.735|0.05521|1.818|10.027| 0.0001|52.808| 0.0117| 0.000|0.253|  1.3|  0.8|
 | -1 |  410 |0.100|   0|35.0| 7.953| 6.402|  0.027|  1.701|0.05637|1.784|10.012| 0.0001|52.807| 0.0127| 0.019|0.268|  1.3|  0.8|
 |  0 |  410 |0.100|   0|35.0| 7.952| 6.355|  0.026|  1.668|0.05753|1.751| 9.998| 0.0001|52.806| 0.0138| 0.038|0.282|  1.3|  0.8|
 |  1 |  410 |0.100|   0|35.0| 7.951| 6.307|  0.025|  1.635|0.05868|1.719| 9.984| 0.0001|52.805| 0.0150| 0.056|0.296|  1.4|  0.9|
 |  2 |  410 |0.100|   0|35.0| 7.949| 6.261|  0.024|  1.604|0.05984|1.687| 9.970| 0.0001|52.804| 0.0162| 0.074|0.310|  1.4|  0.9|
 |  3 |  410 |0.100|   0|35.0| 7.948| 6.214|  0.023|  1.573|0.06099|1.657| 9.957| 0.0002|52.802| 0.0176| 0.091|0.323|  1.4|  0.9|
 |  4 |  410 |0.100|   0|35.0| 7.946| 6.169|  0.022|  1.543|0.06214|1.628| 9.945| 0.0002|52.801| 0.0190| 0.108|0.335|  1.4|  0.9|
 |  5 |  410 |0.100|   0|35.0| 7.945| 6.123|  0.021|  1.514|0.06329|1.599| 9.933| 0.0002|52.799| 0.0205| 0.125|0.347|  1.5|  0.9|
 |  6 |  410 |0.100|   0|35.0| 7.943| 6.079|  0.021|  1.486|0.06442|1.571| 9.921| 0.0002|52.798| 0.0222| 0.141|0.359|  1.5|  0.9|
 |  7 |  410 |0.100|   0|35.0| 7.942| 6.034|  0.020|  1.459|0.06556|1.544| 9.910| 0.0002|52.796| 0.0239| 0.157|0.370|  1.5|  1.0|
 |  8 |  410 |0.100|   0|35.0| 7.940| 5.991|  0.019|  1.432|0.06668|1.518| 9.899| 0.0002|52.794| 0.0257| 0.172|0.381|  1.5|  1.0|
 |  9 |  410 |0.100|   0|35.0| 7.938| 5.947|  0.019|  1.406|0.06779|1.492| 9.889| 0.0003|52.792| 0.0277| 0.187|0.391|  1.6|  1.0|
 | 10 |  410 |0.100|   0|35.0| 7.936| 5.904|  0.018|  1.381|0.06889|1.467| 9.878| 0.0003|52.790| 0.0298| 0.202|0.401|  1.6|  1.0|
 | 11 |  410 |0.100|   0|35.0| 7.934| 5.862|  0.017|  1.356|0.06998|1.443| 9.869| 0.0003|52.788| 0.0320| 0.217|0.411|  1.6|  1.0|
 | 12 |  410 |0.100|   0|35.0| 7.932| 5.820|  0.017|  1.332|0.07106|1.420| 9.859| 0.0003|52.786| 0.0343| 0.231|0.420|  1.6|  1.0|
 | 13 |  410 |0.100|   0|35.0| 7.930| 5.779|  0.016|  1.308|0.07212|1.396| 9.850| 0.0004|52.783| 0.0367| 0.245|0.429|  1.6|  1.1|
 | 14 |  410 |0.100|   0|35.0| 7.928| 5.738|  0.016|  1.285|0.07316|1.374| 9.842| 0.0004|52.781| 0.0393| 0.259|0.438|  1.7|  1.1|
 | 15 |  410 |0.100|   0|35.0| 7.926| 5.697|  0.015|  1.263|0.07419|1.352| 9.833| 0.0004|52.778| 0.0420| 0.272|0.446|  1.7|  1.1|
 | 16 |  410 |0.100|   0|35.0| 7.924| 5.657|  0.015|  1.241|0.07520|1.331| 9.825| 0.0005|52.775| 0.0449| 0.286|0.454|  1.7|  1.1|
 | 17 |  410 |0.100|   0|35.0| 7.922| 5.618|  0.014|  1.219|0.07618|1.310| 9.817| 0.0005|52.772| 0.0479| 0.299|0.462|  1.7|  1.1|
 | 18 |  410 |0.100|   0|35.0| 7.919| 5.578|  0.014|  1.198|0.07715|1.289| 9.810| 0.0005|52.769| 0.0511| 0.312|0.470|  1.8|  1.1|
 | 19 |  410 |0.100|   0|35.0| 7.917| 5.540|  0.014|  1.178|0.07809|1.269| 9.803| 0.0006|52.766| 0.0544| 0.325|0.477|  1.8|  1.2|
 | 20 |  410 |0.100|   0|35.0| 7.915| 5.501|  0.013|  1.157|0.07900|1.250| 9.796| 0.0006|52.762| 0.0579| 0.338|0.484|  1.8|  1.2|
 | 21 |  410 |0.100|   0|35.0| 7.912| 5.463|  0.013|  1.138|0.07989|1.231| 9.789| 0.0007|52.758| 0.0615| 0.350|0.490|  1.8|  1.2|
 | 22 |  410 |0.100|   0|35.0| 7.909| 5.426|  0.013|  1.118|0.08075|1.212| 9.783| 0.0007|52.755| 0.0653| 0.362|0.497|  1.8|  1.2|
 | 23 |  410 |0.100|   0|35.0| 7.907| 5.389|  0.012|  1.100|0.08158|1.193| 9.777| 0.0008|52.751| 0.0693| 0.375|0.503|  1.9|  1.2|
 | 24 |  410 |0.100|   0|35.0| 7.904| 5.352|  0.012|  1.081|0.08238|1.175| 9.771| 0.0008|52.747| 0.0735| 0.387|0.509|  1.9|  1.2|
 | 25 |  410 |0.100|   0|35.0| 7.901| 5.316|  0.012|  1.063|0.08315|1.158| 9.765| 0.0009|52.742| 0.0778| 0.399|0.514|  1.9|  1.3|
 | 26 |  410 |0.100|   0|35.0| 7.898| 5.280|  0.011|  1.045|0.08389|1.140| 9.760| 0.0009|52.738| 0.0823| 0.411|0.519|  1.9|  1.3|
 | 27 |  410 |0.100|   0|35.0| 7.895| 5.245|  0.011|  1.028|0.08459|1.123| 9.754| 0.0010|52.733| 0.0870| 0.423|0.525|  1.9|  1.3|
 | 28 |  410 |0.100|   0|35.0| 7.892| 5.210|  0.011|  1.011|0.08526|1.107| 9.749| 0.0011|52.728| 0.0918| 0.435|0.529|  2.0|  1.3|
 | 29 |  410 |0.100|   0|35.0| 7.889| 5.175|  0.011|  0.994|0.08589|1.090| 9.745| 0.0011|52.723| 0.0969| 0.446|0.534|  2.0|  1.3|
 | 30 |  410 |0.100|   0|35.0| 7.886| 5.141|  0.010|  0.977|0.08648|1.074| 9.740| 0.0012|52.718| 0.1021| 0.458|0.539|  2.0|  1.3|
 +----+------+-----+----+----+------+------+-------+-------+-------+-----+------+-------+------+-------+------+-----+-----+-----+
---> END OF PROGRAM !          e-mail and info --> mazzad50@gmail.com


Tc = 4            ' temperature in Celsius (C)
ppmCO2 = 410      ' parts per million (in volume) of CO2 in the atmosphere
P = 0 to 800 step 40            ' pressure in atm. P=0 means ambient pressure, 1 atm.
S = 35            ' salinity, in grams of salts in 1 kg of solution
pptF = 0.10       ' fraction of CaCO3 which actually precipitates 
Cl  = 0.54586     ' Cl-   Mol/kg(solution)
Na  = 0.46906     ' Na+   Mol/kg(solution)
Mg  = 0.05282     ' Mg++  Mol/kg(solution)
Ca  = 0.01028     ' Ca++  Mol/kg(solution)
SO4 = 0.02824     ' SO4-- Mol/kg(solution)
K   = 0.01021     ' K+    Mol/kg(solution)
Br  = 0.00084     ' Br-   Mol/kg(solution)
Sr  = 0.00009     ' Sr++  Mol/kg(solution)
F   = 0.00007     ' F-    Mol/kg(solution)
B   = 0.00042     ' B(OH)3 + B(OH)4- Mol/kg(solution)
save .csv file = 0' (0=no  1 = yes)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *** CO2 SOLUBILITY EQUILIBRIA IN SEAWATER AND CaCO3 FORMATION ***
 Concentrations [..] are in mmol/kg              DIC = [H2CO3] + [HCO3-] + [CO3--]
 Cout>0 means CO2 is outgassed from SeaWater to Atmosphere, the opposite if Cout<0
 +----+------+-----+----+----+------+------+-------+-------+-------+-----+------+-------+------+-------+------+-----+-----+-----+
 |(C)|ppmCO2| pptF|  P |  S |   pH |  pOH |[H2CO3]|[HCO3-]|[CO3--]| DIC |[Ca++]|[CaOH+]|[Mg++]|[MgOH+]| Cout |CaCO3|sat.C|sat.A|
 +----+------+-----+----+----+------+------+-------+-------+-------+-----+------+-------+------+-------+------+-----+-----+-----+
 |  4 |  410 |0.100|   0|35.0| 7.946| 6.169|  0.022|  1.543|0.06214|1.628| 9.945| 0.0002|52.801| 0.0190| 0.000|0.335|  1.4|  0.9|
 |  4 |  410 |0.100|  40|35.0| 7.939| 6.157|  0.022|  1.589|0.06486|1.676| 9.971| 0.0002|52.800| 0.0196|-0.022|0.308|  1.4|  0.9|
 |  4 |  410 |0.100|  80|35.0| 7.932| 6.146|  0.022|  1.636|0.06767|1.725| 9.998| 0.0002|52.800| 0.0201|-0.044|0.281|  1.3|  0.9|
 |  4 |  410 |0.100| 120|35.0| 7.925| 6.135|  0.022|  1.683|0.07057|1.776|10.026| 0.0002|52.799| 0.0207|-0.067|0.254|  1.3|  0.8|
 |  4 |  410 |0.100| 160|35.0| 7.918| 6.124|  0.022|  1.731|0.07356|1.827|10.054| 0.0002|52.799| 0.0213|-0.090|0.226|  1.3|  0.8|
 |  4 |  410 |0.100| 200|35.0| 7.911| 6.113|  0.022|  1.780|0.07665|1.879|10.083| 0.0002|52.798| 0.0218|-0.113|0.197|  1.2|  0.8|
 |  4 |  410 |0.100| 240|35.0| 7.905| 6.103|  0.022|  1.829|0.07983|1.931|10.112| 0.0002|52.798| 0.0224|-0.137|0.168|  1.2|  0.8|
 |  4 |  410 |0.100| 280|35.0| 7.898| 6.093|  0.022|  1.879|0.08311|1.985|10.141| 0.0002|52.797| 0.0230|-0.161|0.139|  1.1|  0.7|
 |  4 |  410 |0.100| 320|35.0| 7.891| 6.082|  0.022|  1.930|0.08648|2.039|10.171| 0.0002|52.796| 0.0236|-0.185|0.109|  1.1|  0.7|
 |  4 |  410 |0.100| 360|35.0| 7.885| 6.073|  0.022|  1.982|0.08994|2.094|10.201| 0.0002|52.796| 0.0242|-0.210|0.079|  1.1|  0.7|
 |  4 |  410 |0.100| 400|35.0| 7.878| 6.063|  0.022|  2.034|0.09350|2.149|10.232| 0.0002|52.795| 0.0248|-0.235|0.048|  1.0|  0.7|
 |  4 |  410 |0.100| 440|35.0| 7.871| 6.053|  0.022|  2.086|0.09715|2.205|10.263| 0.0002|52.795| 0.0254|-0.260|0.017|  1.0|  0.7|
 |  4 |  410 |0.100| 480|35.0| 7.860| 6.049|  0.022|  2.116|0.09872|2.237|10.280| 0.0002|52.794| 0.0257|-0.274|0.000|  1.0|  0.6|
 |  4 |  410 |0.100| 520|35.0| 7.843| 6.050|  0.022|  2.118|0.09769|2.237|10.280| 0.0002|52.794| 0.0256|-0.275|0.000|  0.9|  0.6|
 |  4 |  410 |0.100| 560|35.0| 7.827| 6.051|  0.022|  2.119|0.09670|2.238|10.280| 0.0002|52.794| 0.0256|-0.275|0.000|  0.8|  0.6|
 |  4 |  410 |0.100| 600|35.0| 7.810| 6.053|  0.022|  2.121|0.09574|2.239|10.280| 0.0002|52.794| 0.0255|-0.276|0.000|  0.8|  0.5|
 |  4 |  410 |0.100| 640|35.0| 7.794| 6.054|  0.022|  2.122|0.09481|2.239|10.280| 0.0002|52.794| 0.0255|-0.277|0.000|  0.7|  0.5|
 |  4 |  410 |0.100| 680|35.0| 7.778| 6.055|  0.022|  2.124|0.09391|2.240|10.280| 0.0002|52.795| 0.0254|-0.277|0.000|  0.7|  0.5|
 |  4 |  410 |0.100| 720|35.0| 7.762| 6.057|  0.022|  2.125|0.09304|2.240|10.280| 0.0002|52.795| 0.0254|-0.278|0.000|  0.6|  0.4|
 |  4 |  410 |0.100| 760|35.0| 7.747| 6.058|  0.022|  2.127|0.09220|2.241|10.280| 0.0002|52.795| 0.0253|-0.278|0.000|  0.6|  0.4|
 |  4 |  410 |0.100| 800|35.0| 7.731| 6.060|  0.022|  2.128|0.09140|2.241|10.280| 0.0002|52.795| 0.0253|-0.279|0.000|  0.5|  0.4|
 +----+------+-----+----+----+------+------+-------+-------+-------+-----+------+-------+------+-------+------+-----+-----+-----+
---> END OF PROGRAM !          e-mail and info --> mazzad50@gmail.com